GPT-4o Evaluations
A Comprehensive Analysis

OpenAI’s latest flagship model, GPT-4o, represents a monumental leap in artificial intelligence, combining enhanced speed and capabilities across text, visual, and audio interactions. This page provides an in-depth analysis of GPT-4o’s performance across various benchmarks and evaluation metrics, illustrating its prowess in text, reasoning, coding intelligence, multilingual processing, audio, and vision capabilities.

Try GPT-4o
OpenAI GPT-4o

Image credit:


The GPT-4o model has been rigorously tested and evaluated to ensure its performance meets and exceeds industry standards. This comprehensive analysis covers traditional benchmarks and explores how GPT-4o achieves and even surpasses the capabilities of GPT-4 Turbo in several key areas.

Text Evaluation

Traditional Benchmarks

GPT-4o has been evaluated on traditional benchmarks that measure its performance in text generation, comprehension, and reasoning. These benchmarks include various datasets and tests designed to challenge the model’s understanding and generation capabilities across different contexts and complexities.

Performance on Text Benchmarks
  • Natural Language Understanding (NLU): GPT-4o demonstrates exceptional proficiency in NLU tasks, achieving high scores on benchmarks such as the General Language Understanding Evaluation (GLUE) and the SuperGLUE.
  • Reading Comprehension: The model excels in reading comprehension tests, such as the Stanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD) and the RACE dataset, showcasing its ability to understand and generate accurate responses to complex questions.
  • Text Generation: GPT-4o sets new standards in text generation benchmarks, including the Billion Word Benchmark and the WebText corpus, generating coherent and contextually relevant text.

Reasoning and Coding Intelligence

GPT-4o’s reasoning and coding intelligence have been evaluated using a variety of benchmarks that assess its logical reasoning, problem-solving, and programming capabilities.

  • Logical Reasoning: The model performs admirably on benchmarks such as the Logical Reasoning dataset and the CommonsenseQA, demonstrating its ability to make logical inferences and answer commonsense questions.
  • Programming Tasks: GPT-4o excels in coding intelligence benchmarks, including the CodeXGLUE and the HumanEval dataset, showcasing its proficiency in understanding and generating code in multiple programming languages.

OpenAI GPT-4o Text Evaluation

Image credit:

Multilingual Capabilities

Performance on Multilingual Benchmarks

GPT-4o sets new high watermarks on multilingual benchmarks, highlighting its ability to understand and generate text in multiple languages with high accuracy.

  • Multilingual Language Understanding (MLU): The model achieves state-of-the-art performance on benchmarks such as the Cross-lingual Natural Language Inference (XNLI) and the Multilingual Question Answering (MLQA) dataset, demonstrating its proficiency in understanding and generating text across different languages.
  • Translation Accuracy: GPT-4o excels in translation tasks, outperforming previous models in benchmarks like the WMT (Workshop on Machine Translation) series, providing accurate and contextually relevant translations between multiple language pairs.

Audio Capabilities

ASR Performance

Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is a critical capability for AI models dealing with audio inputs. GPT-4o has been evaluated on several ASR benchmarks, demonstrating its ability to accurately transcribe spoken language into text.

  • Benchmark Performance: The model achieves high accuracy scores on benchmarks such as LibriSpeech and the Common Voice dataset, showcasing its ability to handle diverse accents, speech patterns, and noisy environments.
  • Real-Time ASR: GPT-4o’s real-time ASR capabilities are particularly noteworthy, providing accurate and timely transcriptions suitable for real-time applications such as live captions and voice-controlled systems.
OpenAI GPT-4o Multilingual Capabilities

Image credit:

Audio Translation Performance

GPT-4o’s audio translation capabilities have been tested using benchmarks that assess its ability to translate spoken language from one language to another accurately.

  • Benchmark Results: The model excels in audio translation tasks, achieving high scores on benchmarks such as the IWSLT (International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation) and the CoVoST (Common Voice Translation) dataset, providing accurate and contextually appropriate translations in real time.

OpenAI GPT-4o Audio Translation Performance

Image credit:

M3Exam Zero-Shot Results

The M3Exam is a benchmark designed to test the model’s ability to understand and respond to audio inputs in a zero-shot setting, meaning the model has not been specifically trained on the exact tasks or datasets it is being evaluated on.

  • Zero-Shot Performance: GPT-4o achieves impressive results in the M3Exam, demonstrating its ability to understand and respond to complex audio inputs without requiring extensive task-specific training. This highlights the model’s generalization capabilities and its potential for use in diverse audio applications.

OpenAI GPT-4o M3Exam Zero-Shot Results

Image credit:

Vision Capabilities

Vision Understanding Evaluations

GPT-4o achieves state-of-the-art performance on visual perception benchmarks, showcasing its ability to understand and generate visual content accurately.

Zero-Shot Vision Evaluations

All vision evaluations for GPT-4o are conducted in a zero-shot setting, where the model has not been specifically trained on the exact tasks or datasets it is being evaluated on. This includes benchmarks such as MMMU, MathVista, and ChartQA, all of which are evaluated using zero-shot Chain-of-Thought (CoT) prompts.

  • MMMU (Multi-Modal Multi-Task Understanding): GPT-4o demonstrates exceptional performance on the MMMU benchmark, showcasing its ability to understand and generate content across multiple modalities (text, images, and audio) simultaneously.
  • MathVista: The model excels in the MathVista benchmark, which tests its ability to understand and generate mathematical content, including solving complex equations and generating accurate mathematical explanations.
  • ChartQA: GPT-4o performs admirably on the ChartQA benchmark, demonstrating its ability to interpret and generate accurate responses to questions based on visual data such as charts and graphs.

OpenAI GPT-4o Vision Capabilities

Image credit:

Safety and Ethical Considerations

Built-In Safety Features

GPT-4o incorporates several safety features designed to ensure its responsible use and mitigate potential risks. These features include filtering training data, refining the model’s behavior through post-training adjustments, and implementing new safety systems for voice outputs.

  • Training Data Filtering: The model’s training data is carefully filtered to remove harmful or biased content, ensuring that the generated outputs are safe and ethical.
  • Behavior Refinement: Post-training adjustments are made to refine the model’s behavior, ensuring it aligns with OpenAI’s ethical guidelines and standards.

External Red Teaming

To further enhance the model’s safety, GPT-4o has undergone extensive external red teaming with over 70 experts in fields such as social psychology, bias and fairness, and misinformation. These experts identify potential risks introduced or amplified by the new modalities, and the insights gained are used to build effective safety interventions.

Risk Assessment

GPT-4o has been evaluated according to OpenAI’s Preparedness Framework and voluntary commitments. The evaluations covered various risk categories, including cybersecurity, chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) risks, persuasion, and model autonomy. GPT-4o does not score above Medium risk in any of these categories, reflecting its robust safety profile.

Audio Modality Risks

Recognizing that GPT-4o’s audio modalities present unique risks, OpenAI has taken a cautious approach to their release. Currently, GPT-4o supports text and image inputs and text outputs. In the coming weeks and months, OpenAI will focus on developing the technical infrastructure, usability enhancements, and safety measures necessary to release other modalities.

  • Audio Outputs: At launch, audio outputs will be limited to a selection of preset voices that adhere to existing safety policies. This cautious rollout ensures that new features are introduced responsibly, with robust safety protocols in place.

Observed Limitations

Despite extensive testing and iterations, several limitations persist across all of GPT-4o’s modalities. These limitations highlight areas where the model’s performance may not meet user expectations or where safety concerns need ongoing attention. OpenAI is committed to continuously monitoring and addressing these limitations as part of its dedication to improving AI safety and efficacy.